A battery comprises one or more cells that undergo chemical changes to allow electrons to flow via a circuit. In renewable energy technology, there is a lot of research and development going on. As a result, revolutionary technologies are being discovered and used worldwide right now. Whether or not you are an Electrical Engineer, you have probably encountered at least a few various types of batteries in your life.
Batteries play crucial roles in our daily lives, even if we aren’t aware of them. Wall clocks, alarms, and smoke detectors, which use tiny disposable batteries, or vehicles, trucks, and motorcycles, which use relatively large rechargeable batteries, are some of the popular areas where batteries are used.
AC cannot be stored in most portable gadgets. However, DC may be held without issue. Even the losses caused by AC power are more than those caused by DC power. For this reason, DC is the preferred power source for portable electronic gadgets. Below we discuss some of the different types of batteries.
A primary battery offers an efficient power source for portable electronics and equipment. Radios, watches, toys, lighting, cameras, and other electronic devices fall under this category. They’re the sort to “discard soon after discharged” because they can’t be revived once they run out of juice. They can’t be used again, in a nutshell.
Primary batteries are low-cost, compact, and easy to use. They also require no servicing. Single-cell types are the most common in-home applications. Alkaline batteries, for example, are typically cylindrical. The electrolyte used in them, potassium hydroxide, a pure alkaline material, gave them their name.
Zinc (Zn) and manganese dioxide are the main ingredients in this primary battery (MnO2). It generates 100 Wh/kg of energy. Coin-shaped primary batteries, often known as coin cell batteries, are another type of primary battery. Torches, remote controls, wall clocks, and other tiny portable devices frequently employ them. A coin cell battery also has an alkaline chemical structure. Lithium and silver oxide compounds are also present. This small battery becomes more efficient due to these compounds, which provide a consistent and constant voltage. It generates 270 Wh/kg of power.
Secondary batteries have electrochemical cells that can convert their chemical reactions by supplying a voltage in the opposite direction to the battery. These types of cells, unlike primary cells, can be replenished once the battery’s energy has been depleted.
They’re most commonly employed in high-drain systems and other situations where single-charge batteries would be too costly or impractical. Low power secondary batteries can be used to operate portable electronic devices such as cell phones and other devices and appliances, while heavy-duty batteries are used to power various electric vehicles and other high-drain tasks such as load leveling in power generation. They can also be utilized to produce electricity as a single power source in conjunction with inverters. Rechargeable batteries are always more expensive than primary batteries at first, but they are the most cost-effective in the long run.
Based on their chemistry, secondary batteries can be divided into several categories. This is critical since the chemical properties of the battery impact several characteristics, including its specific capacity, cycle life, longevity, and price. The following are some of the most prevalent types of rechargeable batteries:
Lithium-ion Batteries – One of the most common forms of rechargeable batteries is lithium-ion. Lithium batteries come in various shapes and sizes, but lithium-ion deep cycle battery is the most prevalent. These lithium batteries can be found in multiple applications, including electric vehicles and other portable devices. They can be found in various mobile gadgets, including cell phones, smart devices, and other battery-powered household items.
Lead-Acid Batteries – Lead-acid batteries are a low-cost, dependable power workhorse commonly utilized in heavy-duty applications. Typically, they are pretty large, and they’re used only in non-portable applications. The lead-acid battery is the earliest type of rechargeable battery, and it is still highly significant in this era.
Nickel-Cadmium Batteries – The nickel-cadmium battery is a rechargeable battery that uses nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrode materials. Ni-Cd batteries thrive at preserving voltage and storing energy when not in use. Whenever a half-charged battery is recharged, it makes NI-Cd batteries susceptible to the dreaded “memory” effect, which reduces the cell’s future capacity.
Battery life impacts the effective execution of systems that need a long-lasting battery. Although numerous voltage regulation strategies are being used to make the battery endure longer, a suitable battery must still be picked to accomplish the intended output. The requirement to store created electrical energy led to the invention of batteries. They’ve been shown to be practical, dependable, and cost-effective electricity sources.